List of publications using PISM

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Number of published PISM applications per year

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(Note. This plot and the list below are generated by processing applications.bib.)


  1. Lars Ackermann, Thomas Rackow, Kai Himstedt, Paul Gierz, Gregor Knorr, and Gerrit Lohmann. A comprehensive Earth system model (AWI-ESM2.1) with interactive icebergs: effects on surface and deep-ocean characteristics. Geoscientific Model Development, 17(8):3279–3301, April 2024. doi:10.5194/gmd-17-3279-2024.
  2. A. Delhasse, J. Beckmann, C. Kittel, and X. Fettweis. Coupling MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) with PISM (Parallel Ice Sheet Model) mitigates the positive melt–elevation feedback. The Cryosphere, 18(2):633–651, 2024. URL:, doi:10.5194/tc-18-633-2024.
  3. Jeremy C. Ely, Chris D. Clark, Sarah L. Bradley, Lauren Gregoire, Niall Gandy, Ed Gasson, Remy L.J. Veness, and Rosie Archer. Behavioural tendencies of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet revealed by data–model comparison. Journal of Quaternary Science, June 2024. doi:10.1002/jqs.3628.
  4. Daniel P. Lowry, Holly K. Han, Nicholas R. Golledge, Natalya Gomez, Katelyn M. Johnson, and Robert M. McKay. Ocean cavity regime shift reversed West Antarctic grounding line retreat in the late Holocene. Nature Communications, April 2024. doi:10.1038/s41467-024-47369-3.
  5. Lu Niu, Gregor Knorr, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, Paul Gierz, and Gerrit Lohmann. Rapid Laurentide Ice Sheet growth preceding the Last Glacial Maximum due to summer snowfall. Nature Geoscience, April 2024. doi:10.1038/s41561-024-01419-z.
  6. G. J. G. Paxman, S. S. R. Jamieson, A. M. Dolan, and M. J. Bentley. Subglacial valleys preserved in the highlands of south and east Greenland record restricted ice extent during past warmer climates. The Cryosphere, 18(3):1467–1493, 2024. URL:, doi:10.5194/tc-18-1467-2024.
  7. Clemens Schannwell, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Marie-Luise Kapsch, and Florian Ziemen. A mechanism for reconciling the synchronisation of Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Nature Communications, April 2024. doi:10.1038/s41467-024-47141-7.


  1. R.E. Archer, J.C. Ely, T.J. Heaton, F.E.G. Butcher, A.L.C. Hughes, and C.D. Clark. Assessing ice sheet models against the landform record: the Likelihood of Accordant Lineations Analysis (LALA) tool. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 2023. doi:10.1002/esp.5658.
  2. Nico Bauer, David P Keller, Julius Garbe, Kristine Karstens, Franziska Piontek, Werner von Bloh, Wim Thiery, Maria Zeitz, Matthias Mengel, Jessica Strefler, Kirsten Thonicke, and Ricarda Winkelmann. Exploring risks and benefits of overshooting a 1.5°C carbon budget over space and time. Environmental Research Letters, 18(5):054015, 2023. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/accd83.
  3. J. Beckmann and R. Winkelmann. Effects of extreme melt events on ice flow and sea level rise of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The Cryosphere, 17(7):3083–3099, 2023. doi:10.5194/tc-17-3083-2023.
  4. Nils Bochow, Anna Poltronieri, Alexander Robinson, Marisa Montoya, Martin Rypdal, and Niklas Boers. Overshooting the critical threshold for the Greenland ice sheet. Nature, 622(7983):528–536, oct 2023. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06503-9.
  5. J. Feldmann and A. Levermann. Timescales of outlet-glacier flow with negligible basal friction: theory, observations and modeling. The Cryosphere, 17(1):327–348, 2023. doi:10.5194/tc-17-327-2023.
  6. T. Frank, W. J. J. van Pelt, and J. Kohler. Reconciling ice dynamics and bed topography with a versatile and fast ice thickness inversion. The Cryosphere, 17(9):4021–4045, 2023. doi:10.5194/tc-17-4021-2023.
  7. Julius Garbe, Maria Zeitz, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, and Ricarda Winkelmann. The evolution of future Antarctic surface melt using PISM-dEBM-simple. The Cryosphere, 17(11):4571–4599, nov 2023. doi:10.5194/tc-17-4571-2023.
  8. Evan J. Gowan, Sebastian Hinck, Lu Niu, Caroline Clason, and Gerrit Lohmann. The impact of spatially varying ice sheet basal conditions on sliding at glacial time scales. Journal of Glaciology, pages 1–15, 2023. doi:10.1017/jog.2022.125.
  9. K. Hank, L. Tarasov, and E. Mantelli. Modeling sensitivities of thermally and hydraulically driven ice stream surge cycling. Geoscientific Model Development, 16(19):5627–5652, 2023. URL:, doi:10.5194/gmd-16-5627-2023.
  10. E. A. Hill, B. Urruty, R. Reese, J. Garbe, O. Gagliardini, G. Durand, F. Gillet-Chaulet, G. H. Gudmundsson, R. Winkelmann, M. Chekki, D. Chandler, and P. M. Langebroek. The stability of present-day Antarctic grounding lines – Part 1: No indication of marine ice sheet instability in the current geometry. The Cryosphere, 17(9):3739–3759, 2023. doi:10.5194/tc-17-3739-2023.
  11. A. Johnson, A. Aschwanden, T. Albrecht, and R. Hock. Range of 21st century ice mass changes in the Filchner-Ronne region of Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology, 2023. doi:10.1017/jog.2023.10.
  12. Guillaume Jouvet, Denis Cohen, Emmanuele Russo, Jonathan Buzan, Christoph C. Raible, Wilfried Haeberli, Sarah Kamleitner, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Michael A. Imhof, and Jens K. Becker. Coupled climate-glacier modelling of the last glaciation in the Alps. Journal of Glaciology, pages 1–15, 2023. doi:10.1017/jog.2023.74.
  13. M. Lauritzen, G. Aðalgeirsdóttir, N. Rathmann, A. Grinsted, B. Noël, and C. S. Hvidberg. The influence of inter-annual temperature variability on the greenland ice sheet volume. Annals of Glaciology, 2023. doi:10.1017/aog.2023.53.
  14. X. Luo and T. Lin. A semi-empirical framework for ice sheet response analysis under oceanic forcing in Antarctica and Greenland. Climate Dynamics, 60:213–226, 2023. doi:10.1007/s00382-022-06317-x.
  15. A. Løkkegaard, K. D. Mankoff, C. Zdanowicz, G. D. Clow, M. P. Lüthi, S. H. Doyle, H. H. Thomsen, D. Fisher, J. Harper, A. Aschwanden, B. M. Vinther, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Zekollari, T. Meierbachtol, I. McDowell, N. Humphrey, A. Solgaard, N. B. Karlsson, S. A. Khan, B. Hills, R. Law, B. Hubbard, P. Christoffersen, M. Jacquemart, J. Seguinot, R. S. Fausto, and W. T. Colgan. Greenland and Canadian Arctic ice temperature profiles database. The Cryosphere, 17(9):3829–3845, 2023. doi:10.5194/tc-17-3829-2023.
  16. R. Reese, J. Garbe, E. A. Hill, B. Urruty, K. A. Naughten, O. Gagliardini, G. Durand, F. Gillet-Chaulet, G. H. Gudmundsson, D. Chandler, P. M. Langebroek, and R. Winkelmann. The stability of present-day Antarctic grounding lines – Part 2: Onset of irreversible retreat of Amundsen Sea glaciers under current climate on centennial timescales cannot be excluded. The Cryosphere, 17(9):3761–3783, 2023. doi:10.5194/tc-17-3761-2023.
  17. Vanessa Skiba, Guillaume Jouvet, Norbert Marwan, Christoph Spötl, and Jens Fohlmeister. Speleothem growth and stable carbon isotopes as proxies of the presence and thermodynamical state of glaciers compared to modelled glacier evolution in the Alps. Quaternary Science Reviews, 322:108403, 2023. URL:, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2023.108403.
  18. Jamey Stutz, Shaun Eaves, Kevin Norton, Klaus M. Wilcken, Claudia Moore, Rob McKay, Dan Lowry, Kathy Licht, and Katelyn Johnson. Inland thinning of Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, during Ross Ice Shelf formation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 2023. URL:, doi:10.1002/esp.5701.
  19. J. Sutter, A. Jones, T. L. Frölicher, C. Wirths, and T. F. Stocker. Climate intervention on a high-emissions pathway could delay but not prevent West Antarctic Ice Sheet demise. Nature Climate Change, 2023. doi:10.1038/s41558-023-01738-w.
  20. M. Urbanč and M. Depolli. Graphical user interface to perform glacier simulations with PISM. In 2023 46th MIPRO ICT and Electronics Convention (MIPRO), 315–320. 2023. doi:10.23919/MIPRO57284.2023.10159747.
  21. Qing Yan, Lewis A. Owen, Chuncheng Guo, Zhongshi Zhang, Jinzhe Zhang, and Huijun Wang. Widespread glacier advances across the Tian Shan during Marine Isotope Stage 3 not supported by climate-glaciation simulations. Fundamental Research, 3(1):102–110, 2023. doi:10.1016/j.fmre.2022.01.033.
  22. Qing Yan, Ting Wei, and Zhongshi Zhang. Modeling the timing and extent of glaciations over southeastern Tibet during the last glacial stage. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 610:111336, 2023. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2022.111336.
  23. Yuao Zhang, Xu Zhang, Jinbo Zan, and Xiaomin Fang. Investigating uncertainty of simulating Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheet evolution by glacial index method. Advances in Earth Science, 38(6):619–630, 2023. URL:


  1. A. Aschwanden and D. J. Brinkerhoff. Calibrated mass loss predictions for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geophysical Research Letters, 2022. doi:10.1029/2022GL099058.
  2. Aljaž Bavec and Matjaž Depolli. Alpine glacier simulation with linear climate models. In 2022 45th Jubilee International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO), 245–250. 2022. doi:10.23919/MIPRO55190.2022.9803326.
  3. Anaïs Bretones, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Mari F. Jensen, Ailin Brakstad, and Shuting Yang. Transient increase in arctic deep-water formation and ocean circulation under sea-ice retreat. Journal of Climate, 35(1):109 – 124, 2022. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0152.1.
  4. Chris D. Clark, Jeremy C. Ely, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh, Sarah Bradley, Adam Ignéczi, Derek Fabel, Colm Ó Cofaigh, Richard C. Chiverrell, James Scourse, Sara Benetti, Tom Bradwell, David J. A. Evans, David H. Roberts, Matt Burke, S. Louise Callard, Alicia Medialdea, Margot Saher, David Small, Rachel K. Smedley, Edward Gasson, Lauren Gregoire, Niall Gandy, Anna L. C. Hughes, Colin Ballantyne, Mark D. Bateman, Grant R. Bigg, Jenny Doole, Dayton Dove, Geoff A. T. Duller, Geraint T. H. Jenkins, Stephen L. Livingstone, Stephen McCarron, Steve Moreton, David Pollard, Daniel Praeg, Hans Petter Sejrup, Katrien J. J. Van Landeghem, and Peter Wilson. Growth and retreat of the last British–Irish Ice Sheet, 31 000 to 15 000 years ago: the BRITICE-CHRONO reconstruction. Boreas, 2022. doi:10.1111/bor.12594.
  5. R. Döscher, M. Acosta, A. Alessandri, P. Anthoni, T. Arsouze, T. Bergman, R. Bernardello, S. Boussetta, L.-P. Caron, G. Carver, M. Castrillo, F. Catalano, I. Cvijanovic, P. Davini, E. Dekker, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, D. Docquier, P. Echevarria, U. Fladrich, R. Fuentes-Franco, M. Gröger, J. v. Hardenberg, J. Hieronymus, M. P. Karami, J.-P. Keskinen, T. Koenigk, R. Makkonen, F. Massonnet, M. Ménégoz, P. A. Miller, E. Moreno-Chamarro, L. Nieradzik, T. van Noije, P. Nolan, D. O’Donnell, P. Ollinaho, G. van den Oord, P. Ortega, O. T. Prims, A. Ramos, T. Reerink, C. Rousset, Y. Ruprich-Robert, P. Le Sager, T. Schmith, R. Schrödner, F. Serva, V. Sicardi, M. Sloth Madsen, B. Smith, T. Tian, E. Tourigny, P. Uotila, M. Vancoppenolle, S. Wang, D. Wårlind, U. Willén, K. Wyser, S. Yang, X. Yepes-Arbós, and Q. Zhang. The EC-Earth3 Earth system model for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6. Geoscientific Model Development, 15(7):2973–3020, 2022. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-2973-2022.
  6. J. Feldmann, R. Reese, R. Winkelmann, and A. Levermann. Shear-margin melting causes stronger transient ice discharge than ice-stream melting in idealized simulations. The Cryosphere, 16(5):1927–1940, 2022. doi:10.5194/tc-16-1927-2022.
  7. S. Hinck, E. J. Gowan, X. Zhang, and G. Lohmann. PISM-LakeCC: Implementing an adaptive proglacial lake boundary into an ice sheet model. The Cryosphere, pages 941–965, 2022. doi:10.5194/tc-16-941-2022.
  8. James D. Kirkham, Kelly A. Hogan, Robert D. Larter, Neil S. Arnold, Jeremy C. Ely, Chris D. Clark, Ed Self, Ken Games, Mads Huuse, Margaret A. Stewart, Dag Ottesen, and Julian A. Dowdeswell. Tunnel valley formation beneath deglaciating mid-latitude ice sheets: Observations and modelling. Quaternary Science Reviews, pages 107680, oct 2022. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107680.
  9. Oğuzhan Köse, M. Akif Sarıkaya, Attila Çiner, Adem Candaş, Cengiz Yıldırım, and Klaus M. Wilcken. Reconstruction of Last Glacial Maximum glaciers and palaeoclimate in the central Taurus Range, Mt. Karanfil, of the Eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Science Reviews, 291:107656, sep 2022. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107656.
  10. Shuang Liu, Kaiheng Hu, Weiming Liu, and Paul A. Carling. Hydro-climatic characteristics of Yarlung Zangbo River Basin since the Last Glacial Maximum. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 2022. doi:10.1007/s00376-021-1150-7.
  11. Xiao Luo and Ting Lin. A Semi-Empirical Framework for ice sheet response analysis under Oceanic forcing in Antarctica and Greenland. Climate Dynamics, may 2022. doi:10.1007/s00382-022-06317-x.
  12. M. S. Madsen, S. Yang, G. Aðalgeirsdóttir, S. H. Svendsen, C. B. Rodehacke, and I. M. Ringgaard. The role of an interactive greenland ice sheet in the coupled climate-ice sheet model EC-Earth-PISM. Climate Dynamics, Feb 2022. doi:10.1007/s00382-022-06184-6.
  13. Julian Martin, Bethan J. Davies, Richard Jones, and Varyl Thorndycraft. Modelled sensitivity of Monte San Lorenzo ice cap, Patagonian Andes, to past and present climate. Frontiers in Earth Science, oct 2022. doi:10.3389/feart.2022.831631.
  14. Mark L. Pittard, Pippa L. Whitehouse, Michael J. Bentley, and David Small. An ensemble of Antarctic deglacial simulations constrained by geological observations. Quaternary Science Reviews, 298:107800, dec 2022. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107800.
  15. T. Schlemm, J. Feldmann, R. Winkelmann, and A. Levermann. Stabilizing effect of mélange buttressing on the marine ice-cliff instability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Cryosphere, 16(5):1979–1996, 2022. doi:10.5194/tc-16-1979-2022.
  16. Martin Siegert and Nicholas R Golledge. Advances in Numerical Modelling of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. In Antarctic Climate Evolution, chapter 5, pages 199–218. Elsevier, 2nd edition, 2022.
  17. Qing Yan, Ting Wei, and Zhongshi Zhang. Modeling the climate sensitivity of Patagonian glaciers and their responses to climatic change during the global last glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews, 288:107582, 2022. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107582.
  18. Hu Yang, Uta Krebs-Kanzow, Thomas Kleiner, Dmitry Sidorenko, Christian Bernd Rodehacke, Xiaoxu Shi, Paul Gierz, Lu Niu, Evan J. Gowan, Sebastian Hinck, Xingxing Liu, Lennert B. Stap, and Gerrit Lohmann. Impact of paleoclimate on present and future evolution of the Greenland Ice Sheet. PLOS ONE, 17(1):1–21, 2022. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0259816.
  19. M. Zeitz, J. M. Haacker, J. F. Donges, T. Albrecht, and R. Winkelmann. Dynamic regimes of the Greenland Ice Sheet emerging from interacting melt-elevation and glacial isostatic adjustment feedbacks. Earth System Dynamics, 13(3):1077–1096, 2022. doi:10.5194/esd-13-1077-2022.
  20. A.-S. P. Zinck and A. Grinsted. Brief communication: Estimating the ice thickness of the Müller Ice Cap to support selection of a drill site. The Cryosphere, 16(4):1399–1407, 2022. doi:10.5194/tc-16-1399-2022.


  1. D. Barbi, N. Wieters, P. Gierz, M. Andrés-Mart\‘ınez, D. Ural, F. Chegini, S. Khosravi, and L. Cristini. Esm-tools version 5.0: a modular infrastructure for stand-alone and coupled earth system modelling (esm). Geoscientific Model Development, 14(6):4051–4067, 2021. doi:10.5194/gmd-14-4051-2021.
  2. T.L. Edwards, S. Nowicki, B. Marzeion, and others. Projected land ice contributions to twenty-first-century sea level rise. Nature, 593:74–82, 2021. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03302-y.
  3. N. R. Golledge, P. U. Clark, F. He, A. Dutton, C. S. M. Turney, C. J. Fogwill, T. R. Naish, R. H. Levy, R. M. McKay, D. P. Lowry, N. A. N. Bertler, G. B. Dunbar, and A. E. Carlson. Retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet during the last interglaciation and implications for future change. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(17):e2021GL094513, 2021. doi:10.1029/2021GL094513.
  4. W. Ji, A. Robel, E. Tziperman, and J. Yang. Laurentide ice saddle mergers drive rapid sea level drops during glaciations. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(14):e2021GL094263, 2021. doi:10.1029/2021GL094263.
  5. Guillaume Jouvet, Guillaume Cordonnier, Byungsoo Kim, Martin Lüthi, Andreas Vieli, and Andy Aschwanden. Deep learning speeds up ice flow modelling by several orders of magnitude. Journal of Glaciology, pages 1–14, 2021. doi:10.1017/jog.2021.120.
  6. Gregor Knorr, Stephen Barker, Xu Zhang, Gerrit Lohmann, Xun Gong, Paul Gierz, Christian Stepanek, and Lennert B. Stap. A salty deep ocean as a prerequisite for glacial termination. Nature Geoscience, 2021. doi:10.1038/s41561-021-00857-3.
  7. I. Koldtoft, A. Grinsted, B. M. Vinther, and C. S. Hvidberg. Ice thickness and volume of the Renland Ice Cap, East Greenland. Journal of Glaciology, pages 1–13, 2021. doi:10.1017/jog.2021.11.
  8. M. Kreuzer, R. Reese, W. N. Huiskamp, S. Petri, T. Albrecht, G. Feulner, and R. Winkelmann. Coupling framework (1.0) for the PISM (1.1.4) ice sheet model and the MOM5 (5.1.0) ocean model via the PICO ice shelf cavity model in an Antarctic domain. Geoscientific Model Development, 14(6):3697–3714, 2021. doi:10.5194/gmd-14-3697-2021.
  9. J. Lai and A. M. Anders. Climatic controls on mountain glacier basal thermal regimes dictate spatial patterns of glacial erosion. Earth Surface Dynamics, 9(4):845–859, 2021. doi:10.5194/esurf-9-845-2021.
  10. D. P. Lowry, M. Krapp, N. R. Golledge, and A. Alevropoulos-Borrill. The influence of emissions scenarios on future Antarctic ice loss is unlikely to emerge this century. Communications Earth & Environment, 2021. doi:10.1038/s43247-021-00289-2.
  11. L. Niu, G. Lohmann, P. Gierz, E. J. Gowan, and G. Knorr. Coupled climate-ice sheet modelling of MIS-13 reveals a sensitive Cordilleran Ice Sheet. Global and Planetary Change, pages 103474, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103474.
  12. Antony J. Payne, Sophie Nowicki, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Cécile Agosta, Patrick Alexander, Torsten Albrecht, Xylar Asay-Davis, Andy Aschwanden, Alice Barthel, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Reinhard Calov, Christopher Chambers, Youngmin Choi, Richard Cullather, Joshua Cuzzone, Christophe Dumas, Tamsin L. Edwards, Denis Felikson, Xavier Fettweis, Benjamin K. Galton-Fenzi, Heiko Goelzer, Rupert Gladstone, Nicholas R. Golledge, Jonathan M. Gregory, Ralf Greve, Tore Hattermann, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Philippe Huybrechts, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Thomas Kleiner, Peter Kuipers Munneke, Eric Larour, Sebastien Le clec’h, Victoria Lee, Gunter Leguy, William H. Lipscomb, Christopher M. Little, Daniel P. Lowry, Mathieu Morlighem, Isabel Nias, Frank Pattyn, Tyler Pelle, Stephen F. Price, Aurélien Quiquet, Ronja Reese, Martin Rückamp, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Hélène Seroussi, Andrew Shepherd, Erika Simon, Donald Slater, Robin S. Smith, Fiammetta Straneo, Sainan Sun, Lev Tarasov, Luke D. Trusel, Jonas Van Breedam, Roderik van de Wal, Michiel van den Broeke, Ricarda Winkelmann, Chen Zhao, Tong Zhang, and Thomas Zwinger. Future sea level change under coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 and phase 6 scenarios from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(16):e2020GL091741, 2021. doi:10.1029/2020GL091741.
  13. S. J. Phipps, J. L. Roberts, and M. A. King. An iterative process for efficient optimisation of parameters in geoscientific models: a demonstration using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) version 0.7.3. Geoscientific Model Development, 14(8):5107–5124, 2021. doi:10.5194/gmd-14-5107-2021.
  14. T. Schlemm and A. Levermann. A simple parametrization of mélange buttressing for calving glaciers. The Cryosphere, 15(2):531–545, 2021. doi:10.5194/tc-15-531-2021.
  15. J. Seguinot and I. Delaney. Last-glacial-cycle glacier erosion potential in the alps. Earth Surface Dynamics, 9(4):923–935, 2021. doi:10.5194/esurf-9-923-2021.
  16. J. Sutter, H. Fischer, and O. Eisen. Investigating the internal structure of the Antarctic ice sheet: the utility of isochrones for spatiotemporal ice-sheet model calibration. The Cryosphere, 15(8):3839–3860, 2021. doi:10.5194/tc-15-3839-2021.
  17. Michael E. Weber, Nicholas R. Golledge, Chris J. Fogwill, Chris S. M. Turney, and Zoë A. Thomas. Decadal-scale onset and termination of antarctic ice-mass loss during the last deglaciation. Nature Communications, nov 2021. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27053-6.
  18. Q. Yan, L. A. Owen, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, T. Wei, N. Jiang, and R. Zhang. Divergent evolution of glaciation across high-mountain asia during the last four glacial-interglacial cycles. Geophysical Research Letters, n/a(n/a):e2021GL092411, 2021. doi:10.1029/2021GL092411.
  19. M. Zeitz, R. Reese, J. Beckmann, U. Krebs-Kanzow, and R. Winkelmann. Impact of the melt-albedo feedback on the future evolution of the Greenland ice sheet with PISM-dEBM-simple. The Cryosphere, 15(12):5739–5764, 2021. doi:10.5194/tc-15-5739-2021.
  20. Manja ŽEBRE, M. Akif SARIKAYA, Uroš STEPIŠNIK, Renato R. COLUCCI, Cengiz YILDIRIM, Attila ÇİNER, Adem CANDAŞ, Igor VLAHOVIĆ, Bruno TOMLJENOVIĆ, Bojan MATOŠ, and Klaus M. WILCKEN. An early glacial maximum during the last glacial cycle on the northern velebit mt. (croatia). Geomorphology, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2021.107918.


  1. L. Ackermann, C. Danek, P. Gierz, and G. Lohmann. AMOC recovery in a multicentennial scenario using a coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice sheet model. Geophysical Research Letters, 47(16):e2019GL086810, 2020. doi:10.1029/2019GL086810.
  2. T. Albrecht, R. Winkelmann, and A. Levermann. Glacial-cycle simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) – Part 1: Boundary conditions and climatic forcing. The Cryosphere, 14(2):599–632, 2020. doi:10.5194/tc-14-599-2020.
  3. T. Albrecht, R. Winkelmann, and A. Levermann. Glacial-cycle simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) – Part 2: Parameter ensemble analysis. The Cryosphere, 14(2):633–656, 2020. doi:10.5194/tc-14-633-2020.
  4. A. Candaş, M. A. Sarikaya, O. KÖSE, Ö. L. Şen, and A. Çiner. Modelling a Last Glacial Maximum ice cap with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model to infer palaeoclimate in south-west Turkey. Journal of Quaternary Science, 2020. doi:10.1002/jqs.3239.
  5. P. U. Clark, F. He, N. R. Golledge, J. X. Mitrovica, A. Dutton, J. S. Hoffman, and S. Dendy. Oceanic forcing of penultimate deglacial and last interglacial sea-level rise. Nature, 577(7792):660–664, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-1931-7.
  6. Stephen L. Cornford, Helene Seroussi, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Rob Arthern, Chris Borstad, Julia Christmann, Thiago Dias dos Santos, Johannes Feldmann, Daniel Goldberg, Matthew J. Hoffman, Angelika Humbert, Thomas Kleiner, Gunter Leguy, William H. Lipscomb, Nacho Merino, Gaël Durand, Mathieu Morlighem, David Pollard, Martin Rückamp, C. Rosie Williams, and Hongju Yu. Results of the third Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (MISMIP+). The Cryosphere, 14(7):2283–2301, jul 2020. doi:10.5194/tc-14-2283-2020.
  7. O. Eisen, A. Winter, D. Steinhage, T. Kleiner, and A. Humbert. Basal roughness of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in relation to flow speed and basal thermal state. Annals of Glaciology, 61(81):162–175, 2020. doi:10.1017/aog.2020.47.
  8. J. Garbe, T. Albrecht, A. Levermann, J. Donges, and R. Winkelmann. The hysteresis of the antarctic ice sheet. Nature, 585:538–544, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2727-5.
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  7. N. R. Golledge, D. E. Kowalewski, T. R. Naish, R. H. Levy, C. J. Fogwill, and E. G. W. Gasson. The multi-millennial Antarctic commitment to future sea-level rise. Nature, 526(7573):421–425, 2015. doi:10.1038/nature15706.
  8. G. Stuhne and W. Peltier. Reconciling the ICE-6G C reconstruction of glacial chronology with ice sheet dynamics: the cases of Greenland and Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 120(9):1841–1865, 2015. doi:10.1002/2015JF003580.
  9. R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann, A. Ridgwell, and K. Caldeira. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science Advances, 2015. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500589.


  1. G Adalgeirsdottir, A. Aschwanden, C. Khroulev, F. Boberg, R. Mottram, P. Lucas-Picher, and J. H. Christensen. Role of model initialization for projections of 21st-century Greenland ice sheet mass loss. J. Glaciol., 60(222):782–794, 2014. doi:10.3189/2014JoG13J202.
  2. T. Albrecht and A. Levermann. Fracture-induced softening for large-scale ice dynamics. The Cryosphere, 8(2):587–605, 2014. doi:10.5194/tc-8-587-2014.
  3. T. Albrecht and A. Levermann. Spontaneous ice-front retreat induced by disintegration of adjacent ice shelf in antarctica. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 393:26–30, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.02.034.
  4. J. Feldmann, T. Albrecht, C. Khroulev, F. Pattyn, and A. Levermann. Resolution-dependent performance of grounding line motion in a shallow model compared to a full-Stokes model according to the MISMIP3d intercomparison. J. Glaciol., 60(220):353–360, 2014. doi:10.3189/2014JoG13J093.
  5. R. Fischer, S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. A system of conservative regridding for ice-atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM). Geoscientific Model Development, 7(3):883–907, 2014. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014.
  6. C. Fogwill, C. Turney, K. Meissner, N. Golledge, P. Spence, J. Roberts, M. England, R. Jones, and L. Carter. Testing the sensitivity of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean dynamics: past changes and future implications. Journal of Quaternary Science, 29(1):91–98, 2014. doi:10.1002/jqs.2683.
  7. C.J. Fogwill, C.S.M. Turney, N.R. Golledge, D.H. Rood, K. Hippe, L. Wacker, R. Wieler, E.B. Rainsley, and R.S. Jones. Drivers of abrupt Holocene shifts in West Antarctic ice stream direction determined from combined ice sheet modelling and geologic signatures. Antarctic Science, 26:674–686, 2014. doi:10.1017/S0954102014000613.
  8. N. R. Golledge. Selective erosion beneath the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet during LGM retreat. Antarctic Science, 26(6):698–707, 2014. doi:10.1017/S0954102014000340.
  9. N. R. Golledge, L. Menviel, L. Carter, C. J. Fogwill, M. H. England, G. Cortese, and R. H. Levy. Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse 1A from reduced Southern Ocean overturning. Nature Communications, 2014. doi:10.1038/ncomms6107.
  10. A. Levermann, R. Winkelmann, S. Nowicki, J. L. Fastook, K. Frieler, R. Greve, H. H. Hellmer, M. A. Martin, M. Meinshausen, M. Mengel, A. J. Payne, D. Pollard, T. Sato, R. Timmermann, W. L. Wang, and R. A. Bindschadler. Projecting Antarctic ice discharge using response functions from SeaRISE ice-sheet models. Earth System Dynamics, 5(2):271–293, 2014. doi:10.5194/esd-5-271-2014.
  11. M. Mengel and A. Levermann. Ice plug prevents irreversible discharge from east antarctica. Nature Clim. Change, 4:451–455, 2014. doi:10.1038/nclimate2226.
  12. S. H. R. Rosier, J. A. M. Green, J. D. Scourse, and R. Winkelmann. Modeling antarctic tides in response to ice shelf thinning and retreat. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(1):87–97, 2014. doi:10.1002/2013JC009240.
  13. J. Seguinot, C. Khroulev, I. Rogozhina, A. P. Stroeven, and Q. Zhang. The effect of climate forcing on numerical simulations of the Cordilleran ice sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum. The Cryosphere, 8(3):1087–1103, 2014. doi:10.5194/tc-8-1087-2014.
  14. F. A. Ziemen, C. B. Rodehacke, and U. Mikolajewicz. Coupled ice sheet-climate modeling under glacial and pre-industrial boundary conditions. Climate of the Past, 10(5):1817–1836, 2014. doi:10.5194/cp-10-1817-2014.


  1. A. Aschwanden, G. Adalgeirsdottir, and C. Khroulev. Hindcasting to measure ice sheet model sensitivity to initial states. The Cryosphere, 7(4):1083–1093, 2013. doi:10.5194/tc-7-1083-2013.
  2. R. Bindshadler and 27 others. Ice-sheet model sensitivities to environmental forcing and their use in projecting future sea-level (the searise project). J. Glaciol., 59(214):195–224, 2013. doi:10.3189/2013JoG12J125.
  3. P. Dickens and T. Morey. Increasing the scalability of pism for high resolution ice sheet models. In Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops PhD Forum (IPDPSW), 2013 IEEE 27th International, 1336–1344. 2013. doi:10.1109/IPDPSW.2013.255.
  4. N. Golledge, R. Levy, R. McKay, C. Fogwill, D. White, A. Graham, J. Smith, C. Hillenbrand, K. Licht, G. Denton, R. Ackert., S. Maas, and B. Hall. Glaciology and geological signature of the last glacial maximum antarctic ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, 78(0):225 – 247, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.08.011.
  5. M. Habermann, M. Truffer, and D. Maxwell. Changing basal conditions during the speed-up of jakobshavn isbrae, greenland. The Cryosphere, 7(6):1679–1692, 2013. doi:10.5194/tc-7-1679-2013.
  6. S. Nowicki and 30 others. Insights into spatial sensitivities of ice mass response to environmental change from the searise ice sheet modeling project: i. antarctica. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surface, 118(2):1002–1024, 2013. doi:10.1002/jgrf.20081.
  7. S. Nowicki and 30 others. Insights into spatial sensitivities of ice mass response to environmental change from the searise ice sheet modeling project: ii. greenland. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surface, 118(2):1025–1044, 2013. doi:10.1002/jgrf.20076.
  8. F. Pattyn and 28 others. Grounding-line migration in plan-view marine ice-sheet models: results of the ice2sea MISMIP3d intercomparison. J. Glaciol., 59(215):410–422, 2013. doi:10.3189/2013JoG12J129.
  9. C. Rodehacke, A. Voigt, F. Ziemen, and D. Abbot. An open ocean region in neoproterozoic glaciations would have to be narrow to allow equatorial ice sheets. Geophys. Res. Letters, 40(20):5503–5507, 2013. doi:10.1002/2013GL057582.
  10. A. M. Solgaard, J. M. Bonow, P. L. Langen, P. Japsen, and C. S. Hvidberg. Mountain building and the initiation of the greenland ice sheet. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392:161 – 176, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.09.019.
  11. W. J. J. van Pelt, J. Oerlemans, C. H. Reijmer, R. Pettersson, V. A. Pohjola, E. Isaksson, and D. Divine. An iterative inverse method to estimate basal topography and initialize ice flow models. The Cryosphere, 7(3):987–1006, 2013. doi:10.5194/tc-7-987-2013.
  12. R. Winkelmann and A. Levermann. Linear response functions to project contributions to future sea level. Climate Dynamics, 40(11–12):2579–2588, 2013. doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1471-4.


  1. T. Albrecht and A. Levermann. Fracture field for large-scale ice dynamics. Journal of Glaciology, 58(207):165–176, 2012. doi:10.3189/2012JoG11J191.
  2. A. Aschwanden, E. Bueler, C. Khroulev, and H. Blatter. An enthalpy formulation for glaciers and ice sheets. Journal of Glaciology, 58(209):441–457, 2012. doi:10.3189/2012JoG11J088.
  3. N. Golledge, C. Fogwill, A. Mackintosh, and K. Buckley. Dynamics of the last glacial maximum antarctic ice-sheet and its response to ocean forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205385109.
  4. N. Golledge, A. Mackintosh, and 8 others. Last glacial maximum climate in new zealand inferred from a modelled southern alps icefield. Quaternary Science Reviews, 46:30–45, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.05.004.
  5. P. Langen, A. Solgaard, and C. Hvidberg. Self-inhibiting growth of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2012. doi:10.1029/2012GL051810.
  6. A. Levermann, T. Albrecht, R. Winkelmann, M. A. Martin, M. Haseloff, and I. Joughin. Kinematic first-order calving law implies potential for abrupt ice-shelf retreat. The Cryosphere, 6:273–286, 2012. doi:10.5194/tc-6-273-2012.
  7. F. Pattyn, C. Schoof, L. Perichon, and 15 others. Results of the marine ice sheet model intercomparison project, mismip. The Cryosphere, 6:573–588, 2012. doi:10.5194/tc-6-573-2012.
  8. W. J. J. van Pelt and J. Oerlemans. Numerical simulations of cyclic behaviour in the parallel ice sheet model (pism). Journal of Glaciology, 58(208):347–360, 2012. doi:10.3189/2012JoG11J217.
  9. A. Solgaard and P. Langen. Multistability of the greenland ice sheet and the effects of an adaptive mass balance formulation. Climate Dynamics, 2012. doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1305-4.
  10. R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann, K. Frieler, and M.A. Martin. Increased future ice discharge from antarctica owing to higher snowfall. Nature, 492:239–242, 2012. doi:10.1038/nature11616.


  1. T. Albrecht, M. Martin, M. Haseloff, R. Winkelmann, and A. Levermann. Parameterization for subgrid-scale motion of ice-shelf calving fronts. The Cryosphere, 5:35–44, 2011. doi:10.5194/tc-5-35-2011.
  2. A. Levermann. When glacial giants roll over. Nature, 472:43–44, 2011. doi:10.1038/472043a.
  3. M. A. Martin, R. Winkelmann, M. Haseloff, T. Albrecht, E. Bueler, C. Khroulev, and A. Levermann. The potsdam parallel ice sheet model (PISM-PIK) – part 2: dynamic equilibrium simulation of the antarctic ice sheet. The Cryosphere, 5:727–740, 2011. doi:10.5194/tc-5-727-2011.
  4. A. M. Solgaard, N. Reeh, P. Japsen, and T. Nielsen. Snapshots of the greenland ice sheet configuration in the pliocene to early pleistocene. Journal of Glaciology, 57(205):871–880, 2011. doi:10.3189/002214311798043816.
  5. L. S. Sorensen, S. B. Simonsen, and 6 others. Mass balance of the greenland ice sheet (2003–2008) from icesat data – the impact of interpolation, sampling and firn density. The Cryosphere, 5(1):173–186, 2011. doi:10.5194/tc-5-173-2011.
  6. R. Winkelmann, M. A. Martin, M. Haseloff, T. Albrecht, E. Bueler, C. Khroulev, and A. Levermann. The Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK) Part 1: Model description. The Cryosphere, 5:715–726, 2011. doi:10.5194/tc-5-715-2011.


  1. R. Calov, R. Greve, and 9 others. Results from the Ice-Sheet Model Intercomparison Project-Heinrich Event INtercOmparison (ISMIP HEINO). Journal of Glaciology, 56(197):371–383, 2010. doi:10.3189/002214310792447789.


  1. E. Bueler and J. Brown. Shallow shelf approximation as a “sliding law” in a thermodynamically coupled ice sheet model. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surface, 2009. doi:10.1029/2008JF001179.


  1. E. Bueler, J. Brown, and C. Lingle. Exact solutions to the thermomechanically coupled shallow ice approximation: effective tools for verification. J. Glaciol., 53(182):499–516, 2007. doi:10.3189/002214307783258396.
  2. E. Bueler, C. S. Lingle, and J. A. Kallen-Brown. Fast computation of a viscoelastic deformable Earth model for ice sheet simulation. Ann. Glaciol., 46:97–105, 2007. doi:10.3189/172756407782871567.

Latest news

MARUM Bremen: open postdoc in ice-sheet modeling

MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen is offering a position for one postdoctoral researcher in ice-sheet modeling, in the project “PalMod III-From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene”.

PISM 2.1 is out

We are pleased to announce the release of PISM v2.1.

Congrats to Constantine

Dear PISM users and developers